Textile machines for spinning

Spinning is the complex process of processing the textile fibers necessary to transform them into yarn.

The ultimate aim of spinning is to obtain a yarn that is as uniform as possible in terms of characteristics such as strength, count, color, cleanliness and elasticity.

Spinning then allows the raw fiber to turn into a yarn. If the original fiber is wool or cotton it will appear in staple, if it is silk or synthetic it is in the form of a filament which is torn to be blended as a staple.

The spinning process

The first phase of the spinning processi s the opening, cleaning, blending and oiling of the fiber.

We then proceed to carding which untangles the fibers and directs them in the same direction for parallelization.

The following phases are combing and / or spinning according to whether it is worsted or woolen spinning.

In the case of worsted spinning, drawing mixes and regulates the weight in the slivers for subsequent spinning.

Finally, we come to spinning which, with a process of twisting the fibers, transforms the mass of fibers into a more or less thin yarn.

These phases can be followed by other processes such as:

  • Winding – Parallel winding
  • Twisting
  • Dyeing

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Spinning in history

Hands for centuries have been the tool with which raw fibers were twisted to be spun. Already during the Neolithic era, spinning was carried out with the help of a spinning spindle, which was formed by a stick inserted in a rod. Hand spinning was and is a long and not very productive work, carried out by many women and children.

In the Middle Ages, given the need to speed up production, the pedal spinning machine was conceived and built, also called Hand Spinning Wheels. These were wooden machines that the spinner operated by pressing a pedal, giving a faster rotation to the spindle. The first pedal spinning wheel appears in 1280.

In the mid-18th century with the industrial revolution the mechanization of industry and also of spinning began. In 1733, the English mechanic John Kay invented the flying shuttle, which increased the productivity of pedal looms considerably.

The need to improve and optimize the spinning process was already clear at the time. From then on the mechanics improved steadily.

* in 1764 the first mechanical spinning machine with intermittent work was invented (Spinning Jenny) by James Hargreaves who patented it in 1770;

* in 1769 Richard Arkwright thought he could operate it with a water wheel and created the Water frame;

* in 1779 Samuel Crompton, had the idea of ​​combining Arkwright’s hydraulic design with Hargreaves’ Jenny, and patented the Mule Jenny;

* in 1785 a steam engine will be applied to it by Edmund Cartwright.

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